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To vow or pledge after saying Insha-Allah sonnat.net


To vow or pledge after saying Insha-Allah

It is the opinion of Allamah Hilli, and other Mujtahids agree, that every vow or pledge after uttering Insha-Allah (or its translation in any other language) makes the pledge conditional to the Divine will. Hence it is not strictly wajib to fulfill it. But if it is with regard to some promise or condition (of an agreement), that concerns a wajib act or it is for the avoidance of a haraam act, it has to be observed faithfully, even after uttering Insha-Allah.


It must however be understood that the promise which is made conditional by saying 'Insha-Allah' is not binding, only when the person intends the actual meaning of the term Insha-Allah. That is, he must really mean to subject the matter to Allah's will. If he utters Insha-Allah only for the sake of seeking divine blessings then it is binding upon him to remain firm upon his vows.


It should also be clear that it is not only permitted, to disregard a promise of abstaining from a wajib act or to perform a haraam act but it is infact haraam to fulfill it. For example if one vows to punish his wife or son if they did such and such thing, it is better to disregard such vows and forgive them instead.


The Quran says:

"And let not those of you who possess grace and abundance swear against giving to the near of kin and the poor and those who have fled in Allah's way, and they should pardon and turn away. Do you not love that Allah should forgive you?'

(Surah Nur 24:22)


It means that Allah forgives the sins of those who forgive the wrongdoings of others.


Prophet Ayyub (a.s.) and his oath of beating his wife a hundred strokes


In a situation where, one has taken an oath in utmost seriousness to inflict punishment, and one does not wish to go against it, it is better to carry out the oath in a manner that a token punishment is given and the oath is also not violated. For example, Prophet Ayyub (a.s.) saw his wife doing something against his will. He took a vow to hit her a hundred strokes after he recovered from the illness. When he recovered, Allah ordered him,

"And take in your hand a green branch (with a hundred twigs) and beat her (your wife) with it (once) and do not break your oath."

(Surah Saad 38:44


 


The Twenty-Second Greater Sin

KHAYANAT


 


The twenty-second greater sin, is defalcation or misappropriation of property. Misappropriation of property as a greater sin is stated in the Quran and the authentic tradition related by Abdul Azeem from Imam Muhammad Taqi (a.s.) and also from the traditions of Imam Sadiq (a.s.), Imam Kazim (a.s.) and Imam Reza (a.s.).


Khayanat is itself an Arabic word. In the tradition of Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.) as related by Amash the word 'Khayanat' is used in the list of the greater sins. Another Arabic word used for misappropriation is 'ghulul.' 'Ghulul' is used in the narration of Fazl Ibne Shazaan where he quotes Imam Reza (a.s.). According to some lexicographers 'ghul' denotes misappropriation of a property obtained as spoils of war against the disbelievers which is not yet been distributed among the Muslims. However other scholars maintain that 'ghulul' applies to every kind of embezzlement.


The punishment of misappropriation according to the Holy Quran


The Almighty Allah says "...and he who eats unfaithfully shall bring that in respect of which he has acted unfaithfully on the Day of Resurrection; then every soul be paid fully what it has earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly. Is then he who follows the pleasure of Allah like him who has made himself deserving of displeasure from Allah, and his abode is hell; and it is an evil destination."

(Surah Aale Imraan 3:161-162)


In Surah Tahrim we find the verse:

"Allah sets forth an example to those who disbelieve, the wife of Nuh and the wife of Lut: they were both under two of Our righteous servants, but they acted treacherously towards them so they availed them naught against Allah, and it was said: Enter both the fire with those who enter."

(Surah Tahrim 66:10)


Also Allah (a.j.) says:

"… Surely Allah does not love the treacherous."

(Surah Anfal 8:58)


and

"O you who believe! Be not unfaithful to Allah and the Apostle, nor be unfaithful to your trusts while you know."

(Surah Anfal 8:27)


Similarly the Quran says,

"…but if one of you trusts another, then he who is trusted should deliver his trusts, and let him be careful (of his duty to) Allah, his Lord..."

(Surah Baqarah 2:283)


At another place the Divine Book states,

"Surely Allah commands you to make over trusts to their owners..."

(Surah Nisa 4:58)


Breach of trust denounced in the traditions


The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) says:

"One who embezzles a property in his charge and does not deliver it to its owner and dies in such a condition, then he does not die in my community (he does not die a Muslim). When such a person meets Allah, He shall be infuriated with him. And one who purchases an embezzled property knowing that it is embezzled is just like the (actual) embezzler."

(Wasaelush Shia)


Another tradition states,

"And it will be ordered to throw him in the fire; he will remain in the deep pit of Hell forever."

(Wasaelush Shia)


The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) is also reported to have remarked,

"If one is Muslim, he must not practice deceit and defalcation. For I have heard from Jibraeel that deceit and cheating belong to hell."


Then he (s.a.w.s.) continued,

"One who cheats a Muslim is not from us, and one who embezzles the believers is (also) not from us."

(Wasaelush Shia)


The following tradition is recorded in the book Al Kafi:

"There are three qualities that are the sign of a hypocrite even if he prays and fasts and calls himself a Muslim: lying, violating promises and defalcation."


This tradition had already been mentioned in the previous discussion.


Amirul Momineen Ali (a.s.) says;

"There are four things and even if one of them enters a house it causes economic catastrophe and it never remains blessed: defalcation, thievery, wine and adultery.

(Wasaelush Shia)


Thus if one or more members of a household indulge in one of these sins, such a household is deprived from divine blessings. It brings about an economic ruin. It must also be clarified, however, that the house of the thief is deprived of 'barakat' (divine blessings) and not the site where robbery occurs.


Misappropriation causes misfortune


The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) remarks,

"Trustworthiness causes one to be self sufficient (financially) and misappropriation causes poverty."

(Wasaelush Shia)


The narrator says that I said to Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.),

"There is a lady in Madinah, with whom people leave their daughters for training (and education). We have observed that she could maintain herself with so less, but we have never known her to have any financial problem."


Imam Sadiq (a.s.) remarked,

"It is because she is truthful and trustworthy. These two qualities increase sustenance."

(Wasaelush Shia)


Another tradition from the same Imam (a.s.) is as follows:

"Do not be deceived by the prolonged sajda and rukoo of a man, they may be a part of his habits (that he could not avoid). See his truth and trustworthiness."


Thus it is these qualities that prove righteousness and piety.


Anyone could be the owner of the entrusted property


We have numerous traditions dealing with this subject. They emphatically state that it is wajib to guard the trust and haraam to misappropriate it, whether the one who entrusts it, is a Muslim or a Kafir. It is even wajib to protect the goods entrusted by a Nasibi (those are openly inimical to Ahlul Bayt a.s.) in spite of the fact that the Nasibi are the worst kind of people.


Hazrat Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.) says:

"Fear Allah! And return the entrusted thing to the owner. Even if the murderer of Ali (a.s.) entrusts me with something, I shall deliver it to him (when he desires)."


Imam (a.s.) also says,

"Then fear Allah! And guard the trusts (placed by) the white as well as the black (people). Even if the one who entrusts is from the Khwarij or a Syrian (those who hate Ali [a.s.])." That is, even if he is a confirmed enemy of the Ahlul Bayt (a.s.).


A man inquired from Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.),

"Is it allowed to misappropriate the property of a Nasibi?"


Imam (a.s.) replied,

"Honour the trust of every person who entrusts you with it, or seeks your advice. Even if it is the killer of Imam Husain (a.s.)."

(Wasaelush Shia)


Another similar narration is as follows:

Husain Shabani says that he asked Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.), "One of your followers considers the property and blood of Bani Umayya permissible for himself. He is also in possession of some property entrusted to him by the Bani Umayya?"


Imam (a.s.) replied,

"Restore the entrusted property to its owner even if they are Majoos (fireworshippers)."


Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.) is also reported to have said,

"Allah has not sent any messenger but with (the order to propagate) truth and restoring of trust, whether of a righteous man or a sinner."

(Wasaelush Shia)


Muhammad Bin Qasim says that he mentioned to Abul Hasan, Imam Musa al-Kazim (a.s.) regarding the person who had entrusted someone with something valuable. "The trustee is an Arab and he is competent enough not to return the trust. Whereas the one who entrusts is a wretched Khariji (enemy of Ahlul Bayt)?"


Imam (a.s.) said,

"Tell him to return the trust; because it is a divine trust that he is entrusted with." (Meaning that it is a trust, which is to be restored according to divine command).


Hazrat Imam Zainul Abedin (a.s.) advises his Shias:

"You must return the trusts when required. By the One who has sent Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) as a messenger with trust, even if the killer of my father Husain (a.s.) had entrusted me with the sword with which he had slain him, I would have delivered it back to him."


The Satan instigates


The greater the importance of a duty in Islamic law, the greater is the effect put in by Shaitan to deviate a person from fulfilling it.


Hazrat Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.) says,

"If a person makes good the trust in his possession, he unties a thousand knots that had tied him to Hell. So, do not be sluggish in delivering trusts. When one becomes a trustee, Iblees orders a hundred of his assistants to follow him so that they may deviate him and suggest him to defalcate. They continue to pursue him till he is doomed. Except the one who is saved by Allah (a.j.)."


Ameen (Trustworthy) - A Title of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.)


Every historian has recorded that even prior to the declaration of his prophethood, the disbelievers of Quraish addressed the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) by the title of 'Ameen'. The disbelievers trusted him to the extent that even though they did not heed his call and did not profess Islam, they deposited their valuables with him. The trust in the Prophet's trustworthiness was not restricted to the Quraish tribe, but was shared by the people of other tribes and areas as well. When these people came toMecca during the Hajj season they used to put their belongings in the safe custody of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). This continued after the declaration of prophethood. When the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) migrated to Madinah he gave all the things that were in his custody to Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and said:

"Proclaim loudly, every morning and evening in Mecca that whoever had kept anything with Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) may collect it."


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