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Trustworthy people praised in the Quran sonnat.net


Trustworthy people praised in the Quran

It is mentioned in Surah Aale Imraan:

"And among the followers of the Book there are some such that if you entrust one (of them) with a heap of wealth, he shall pay it back to you; and among them there are some such that if you entrust one (of them) with a dinaar he shall not pay it back to you except so long as you remain firm in demanding it; this is because they say: There is not upon us in the matter of the unlearned people any way (reproach); and they tell a lie against Allah while they know."

(Surah Aale Imraan 3:75)


This verse praises those Christians who do not embezzle when non-Christians entrust something to them and it denounces the Jews who consider it permissible to misappropriate the property of anyone who is not a Jew. They falsely claim that they have been given a licence by Allah to do so.


When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) recited this ayat, he said:

"The enemies of Allah lie! I have corrected every custom and belief of the age of Jahilya (ignorance) but (the matter of) trust is as it was. Whether the trust belongs to a righteous person or an evil one, it has to be returned."

(Tafseer Majmaul Bayan).


According to the ayat the embezzlers are like those Jews who defalcated and if a Muslim considers embezzlement to be permissible, he is included among the enemies of Allah.


Recovery of damages from a property in trust


The Quran and Hadith clearly state that under no circumstances is it allowed to pilfer a property held in trust. Shaykh Tusi in his book, Nihaya and other Mujtahids have also mentioned this fact.


Narrators of traditions have mentioned the following from Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.):

"One person sends another with money to purchase a cloth. When the latter goes to the market he sees that he already has the same type of cloth at home. So can he come back and without saying anything give him the cloth that he was already having and retain the money?"


Imam (a.s.) continued, "He should not even think of doing this and make himself contaminated with such a sin." Then Imam (a.s.) recited the 72nd ayat of Surah Ahzaab:

"Surely We offered the trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they refused to be unfaithful to it and feared from it, and man has turned unfaithful to it; Surely he is unjust, ignorant."


Then the Imam (a.s.) further said:

"Even if this man has something better than what is available in the market, he must not give it to the buyer without informing him of the fact."

(Tafseer Safi)


This is because the actual transaction consisted of taking the person's money to the market and purchasing a cloth. Anything contrary to this is 'Khayanat'.


Sulayman Bin Khalid says,

I inquired from Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.): "A man had borrowed some money from me. Not only did he not repay the loan but he also took an oath that he did not owe me anything. Later he kept some of his money with me as a trust. Can I recover my debt from this money?"


Imam (a.s.) replied, "Certainly that person has betrayed you but you should not betray trust. You must not commit the same sin."

(Nihaya of Shaykh Tusi)


As we have already mentioned, Shaykh Tusi and the other great Mujtahids have given a clear verdict in the light of the Quranic verses and clear ahadith, that Khayanat is totally prohibited.


But in the book Milhiqat Urwatul Wuthqa, the late Kazim Tabatabai says, "It is commonly believed by the Mujtahids that to recover one's legal dues from a property held in trust is permitted."


The fatwa of Late Kazim Tabatabai was also to this effect, but precaution dictates that one must refrain from such a course of action.


If a person is given money on the undertaking that he should give it to a poor Sadaat, he cannot keep this money, even if he himself happens to be a poor Sadaat, without informing the owner. But if it is certain that the owner will agree to his keeping it for himself then doing so is not breach of trust.


The burden of Khayanat and the Day of Judgement


The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.s.) has said,

"Beware! One should not commit Khayanat of even one camel! Otherwise, he will be summoned on the Day of Qiyamat riding the same camel and bleating like a camel.


Beware! One should not commit Khayanat of even one horse! Otherwise he will be summoned on the Day of Qiyamat riding the same horse and neighing like a horse.


He will be calling me for help, 'O Muhammad! O Muhammad!' I will tell him that I had already warned him. Now I have no responsibility concerning him against Allah."

(Al Kafi)


Allamah Majlisi has recorded a tradition from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.):

"You must return even a needle and thread. For Khayanat will cause untold degradation and exposure of defects on the Day of Qiyamat."


A man came to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) with a needle that he had taken without permission. He said, "I had taken this needle to sew a pack saddle for my camel."


The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) told him,

"If this needle belongs to me I have forgiven you. However, if it belongs to the other Muslims you must pay for it so that it could be included in the public treasury for equal distribution."


"I was not aware that it was such a serious matter," the Arab remarked, "If it is so, I will not keep the needle with me." He handed over the needle to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and went away.


The guilty shall be recognised by their marks


According to Allamah Majlisi, on the Day of Qiyamat the sinner shall carry the pilfered property on his shoulders. Every type of sinner will have specific distinguishing marks, by which everyone will know what sin the sinner had committed. One who commits a greater sin and dies without repenting for it, the Almighty Allah will deal with him with justice on the Day of Qiyamat. So much so that the mark of the sin that he committed most will be attached to him. For example, the drunkard will be holding a wine bottle, the terrible stench of which will cause discomfort to the people. Similarly, the musician will have the instrument stuck to his hands. The gamblers will be having the instrument of gambling with them. The same thing is alluded to in the verse:

"The guilty shall be recognised by their marks."

(Surah Rahman 55:41)


The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and his trustworthiness


One day a poor man came to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and told him of his poverty. The Prophet (s.a.w.s.) said,

"Sit down! Allah is most Powerful."


Another beggar came and the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) told him to sit down too. Then a third destitute arrived and the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) told him also to sit down. After some time a person came and presented four saa (approximately 12 kilos) of wheat as Zakat to the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) distributed one saa (3kilos) of wheat to each of the poor men. One saa of it remained. After the Maghrib and Isha prayers the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) announced that a saa of wheat is remaining with him. Any needy person can come and collect it from him; but no one came forward. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was compelled to take this trust home. Ayesha says that, that night the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was very restless. When she inquired the reason of his restlessness he replied,

"I am fearful of the consequences in case I die today and this trust is not delivered to a deserving person."


It is also mentioned that when the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) was on his deathbed, he had an amount of six or seven dinars for the poor and the needy, remaining with him. He sent for the money and after counting it, said,

"It is possible that Muhammad (s.a.w.s.) may reach the presence of his Lord while these dinars are still in his custody!"


Then he (s.a.w.s.) summoned Amirul Momineen Hazrat Ali (a.s.), and gave him the dinars for the poor and the destitutes and then said,

"Now I can rest in peace."

(Naaseekhut Tawarikh Vol.3, Pg544)


Secrets are also trusts


Sometimes a person is told a secret and asked not to divulge it to others. This secret is also a kind of trust. It may also be that one learns of a secret regarding another person and is sure that that person would prefer that it is not made known to others. This secret is a trust according to Shariat. To divulge a secret that one has come to know is Khayanat. The following saying of Ali (a.s.) is present in Ghurarul Hikam:

"To divulge a secret that you are supposed to guard is Khayanat and betrayal."


It is absolutely haraam to betray a secret which is a trust, whether of a friend or an enemy, of a righteous person or an evil one.


Private discussion is also a trust


The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) mentions that:

"People who sit together must be careful of safe-guarding the trust. It is not permitted for a believer to disclose a secret of his believing brother."

(Behaarul Anwaar Vol.16)


Abu Zar has related from the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) that he said:

"O Abu Zar, one who sits in company must be cautious of safeguarding trust. For if you expose a secret of your believing brother, you would have committed Khayanat. So, keep away from such things."

(Wasaelush Shia)


Whatever is discussed in a meeting is also a trust with the participants. Anything that is to be kept confidential must not be divulged. It is recorded in the traditions:

"One who sits in company must be wary of maintaining the trust but it is not haraam to expose the secret of three kinds of meetings: One, where an unlawful murder is planned; two, where fornication is planned; three, where it is planned to loot someone's property. The facts of such meetings could be presented in the court for proving someone's right. In some cases it assumes such importance that it becomes necessary to disclose a secret."

(Behaarul Anwaar)


In Surah Tahrim the Almighty Allah flays some of the Prophet's wives (Ayesha and Hafasa) for betraying a secret of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.). Allah has advised them to repent.


"If you both turn to Allah, then indeed your hearts are already inclined (to this)."

(Surah Tahrim 66:4)


The same chapter also mentions the wives of Hazrat Lut (a.s.) and Hazrat Nuh (a.s.) in the following words:

"Allah sets forth an example to those who disbelieve the wife of Nuh and the wife of Lut; they were both under two of Our righteous servants, but they acted treacherously towards them so they availed them naught against Allah, and it was said: Enter both the Fire with those who enter."

(Surah Tahrim 66:10)


 


Divulging secrets is Khayanat


Abdullah Ibne Sinan says that he inquired from Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq (a.s.), "Is it haraam for a believer to expose some things of another believer that deserve to be kept secret?"


"Yes," the Imam (a.s.) replied.

The narrator further asked, "Do you mean by this the 'private parts'?"


Imam (a.s.) explained, "It is not what you think, (Though it is also haraam to view the private parts), what I meant were theconfidential matters."

(Al Kafi)


Imam (a.s.) has also said:

"One who washes a dead body of a believer and observes caution with regard to the trust is absolved of all his sins."


Someone asked, "How can one maintain secrecy with regard to the washing of a believer's corpse?"


The Imam (a.s.) answered,

"He must not tell anyone of the deformities that he might see in the dead body."

(Amaali)


From this discussion we can be certain that exposing a secret amounts to committing Khayanat. Under all circumstances a secret is a trust, whether the person concerned himself takes you in confidence or you come to know of the secrets by yourself, it is haraam to betray it. If the one whom the secret concerns does not wish his secret to be divulged, then it is haraam and a kind of Khayanat to expose it. Such types of trusts that involve secrets have various grades and are of different types. Certain types of Khayanat are termed as tale telling and others are called backbiting. Each of these shall be elaborated ahead.


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